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Health Care arrow Home Kidney Function/Infection Test (2 Tests)



Home Kidney Function/Infection Test (2 Tests)


Price: £4.99


Your kidneys are bean-shaped organs, each about the size of your fist. They are located near the middle of your back, just below the rib cage. Kidneys work as filters that filter wate products and extra water from your blood and produce urine as a result. Urine flows to your bladder through tubes called ureters. Your bladder stores the urine which will pass through the urethra in the process of urination.

The average adult passes between 0.8L and 2.6L per day, depending on the fluids a person consumes. The volume formed at night is
about half that formed in the day time.  The tiny units inside your kidneys, called nephrons, are the actual filtering unit. Every kidney has about a million nephrons.  Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons, altering their ability to filter blood and produce urine.

Common causes of kidney disease:
1. Diabetes
2. High blood pressure.
3. Poisons
4. Certain drugs
5. Cancer.

WHAT ARE THE TYPES AND SEVERITY OF KIDNEY DISEASES?
1. Acute Renal Failure (AFR): This type occurs quickly and suddenly. It is caused as a result of an accident that injures the kidney, loosing lots of blood, some poisons and drugs. These conditions may lead to permanent loss of kidney function. Acute renal failure can still be reversed if your kidneys are not seriously damaged.
2. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): This type involves the gradual loss of kidney function. It happens slowly and may remain asymptomatic for years. People with CKD are more susceptible to heart attacks and strokes. Most kidney problems are under this category.
3. End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD): This condition involves total or nearly total permanent loss of kidney function. Dialysis or transplantation is vital for people with ESRD to stay alive.

WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OF A KIDNEY DISEASE?
At early stages of a kidney disease, people usually do not feel sick at all. If your kidney disease gets worse
you may experience one of the following symptoms:
- You may need to urinate more often or less often.
- You may feel tired or itchy (unable to relax).
- You may lose your appetite or experience nausea (the state that precedes vomiting) and vomiting.
- Your hands or feet may swell or feel numb (lacking sensation).
- You may get drowsy (showing lack of attention) or have trouble concentrating.
- Your skin may darken.
- You may have muscle cramps (a painful and involuntary muscle contraction).

 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS:

Q: If the colours of the reaction areas on the test strip are different than what they should be, what shall I do?

A: In such case you are advised not to use this strip since it will not give accurate results. You have to use a new strip. If the same problem is seen, contact your local distributor.

Q: If results are read after more than one minute, are the results still reliable?

A: Best results are obtained at 60 seconds (1min.), if this time is exceeded, the results will not remain the same and may lead to false readings.

Q: At what time of the day the test should be performed?

A: This test can be done any time of the day. Try to minimize liquid uptake one hour before doing the test.

Q: What can I do about kidney disease?

A: Unfortunately, chronic kidney disease often cannot be cured. But if you are in the early stages of a kidney disease, you may be able to make your kidneys last longer by taking certain steps. You will also want to be sure that risks for heart attack and stroke are minimized, since CKD patients are susceptible to these problems.

? If you have diabetes, watch your blood glucose closely to keep it under control. Consult your doctor for the latest in treatment.

? Avoid pain pills that may make your kidney disease worse. Check with your doctor before taking any medicine.

Q: Do I need to have special diet to control the progress of kidney disease?

A: Here are some points regarding your diet that may help controlling the progress of the diseased kidneys and also reduce the other risks associated with kidney disease:

Protein: Protein is important to your body. It helps your body repair muscles and fight disease. Protein comes mostly from meat. As discussed in an earlier section, healthy kidneys take wastes out of the blood but leave protein. Impaired kidneys may fail to separate the protein from the wastes.  Some doctors tell their kidney patients to limit the amount of protein they eat so that the kidneys have less work to do. But you cannot avoid protein entirely. You may need to work with a dietitian to find the right food plan.

Cholesterol: Another problem that may be associated with kidney failure is too much cholesterol in your blood. High levels of cholesterol may result from a high-fat diet.  Cholesterol can build up on the inside walls of your blood vessels. The build-up makes pumping blood through the vessels harder for your heart and can cause heart attacks and strokes.

Sodium: Sodium is a chemical found in salt and other foods. Sodium in your diet may raise your blood pressure, so you should limit foods that contain high levels of sodium. High-sodium foods include canned or processed foods like frozen dinners and hot dogs.

Potassium: Potassium is a mineral found naturally in many fruits and vegetables, like potatoes, bananas, dried fruits, dried beans and peas, and nuts. Healthy kidneys measure potassium in your blood and remove excess amounts. Diseased kidneys may fail to remove excess potassium, and with very poor kidney function, high potassium levels can affect the heart rhythm.

Q: Does smoking affect the progress of kidney disease?

A: Smoking not only increases the risk of kidney disease, it contributes to deaths from strokes and heart attacks in people with CKD. You should try your best to stop smoking.

Q: Why do most people with kidney disease have also problems with blood pressure?

A: In addition to the kidney role in controlling body water content, and removing waste by-products, kidneys also produce a hormone called Renin. This hormone plays a major role in regulating blood pressure. A diseased kidney may lose the ability to produce this hormone and so affecting the blood pressure.

Q: Does the kidney produce other hormones and what are their roles?

A: kidneys also produce the active form of Vitamin D and a hormone called erythropoietin.

? The active form of Vitamin D helps maintain calcium for bones and for normal chemical balance in the body

? Erythropoietin, or EPO, stimulates the bone marrow to make red blood cells

Q: What happens if my kidneys fail completely?

A: Complete and irreversible kidney failure is called end-stage renal disease, or ESRD. If your kidneys stop working completely, your body fills with extra water and waste products. This condition is called uremia.  Your hands or feet may swell. You will feel tired and weak because your body needs clean blood to function properly.  Untreated uremia may lead to seizures or coma and will ultimately result in death. If your kidneys stop working completely, you will need to undergo dialysis or kidney transplantation.

Q: What is dialysis?

A: Dialysis is the process of passing your blood through a machine that filters away waste products. The clean blood is returned to your body in a continuous circulation. Dialysis is usually performed at a dialysis center three times per week for 3 to 4 hours.

Q: What is Transplantation?

A: This means that a kidney from a donor is to be planted in your body. The kidney that you receive must be a good match for your body. The more the new kidney is like you; the less likely your immune system is to reject it. Your immune system protects you from disease by attacking anything that is not recognized as a normal part of your body. So your immune system will attack a kidney that appears too "foreign." You will take special drugs to help trick your immune system so it does not reject the transplanted kidney.

 

Use a disposable plastic cup to collect the urine. You should use fresh sample for this test.

PROCEDURE:

This procedure MUST BE FOLLOWED EXACTLY to achieve reliable test results.

1. Check that the product is within the expiration date shown on the kit pack.

2. Prepare the urine specimen.

3. Remove the strip from the pouch. Familiarize yourself with the position of the reaction area of Creatinine, Specific gravity and Protein. Dark beige reaction area is for creatinine, yellow reaction area is for specific gravity and yellowish green is for protein. Also, familiarize yourself with the color chart on the pack

4. Dip the test strip in the urine until the reaction areas are completely immersed for no more than 1 second.

5. Remove the dipstick from the urine and tap the strip on the rim of the cup to remove excess urine and place it horizontally with the reaction areas facing up.

6. Leave the strip for 30-60 seconds for the reaction to take place.

7. Read the results by comparing the colours of the reaction on the strip with those of the chart. While comparing, keep the strip in a horizontal position to avoid possible mix of colours between the reaction areas on the strip.

8. Identify the best match colour on the colour chart and the correspondent concentration range. A change in colour that appears only along the edges of the reaction areas indicates that the reaction did not take place properly so we recommend redoing the test with another strip. Results read after 60 seconds are not valid.

RESULTS:

The results are obtained by direct comparison of test strip with the colour chart printed on the pack.

SPECIMEN COLLECTION AND PREPARATION:


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